This Day In Writing History
On May 26th, 1897, Bram Stoker's classic novel Dracula made its debut in London. Stoker's tale of handsome, seductive Transylvanian nobleman and bloodthirsty vampire Count Dracula's move to London in search of new victims to feed on and add to his army of the undead wasn't a huge commercial success, but it was very popular with Victorian readers and critics alike.
Readers described the book as "the most blood-curdling novel of the paralyzed century." In a review in the Daily Mail published on June 1st, 1897, Dracula was proclaimed a classic of Gothic horror, the critic stating that "In seeking a parallel to this weird, powerful, and horrorful story, our mind reverts to such tales as The Mysteries of Udolpho, Frankenstein, The Fall of the House of Usher ... but Dracula is even more appalling in its gloomy fascination than any one of these."
Dracula is a novel very much the product of its time, that being the late 19th century - the waning years of the Victorian era, as a new century approached. The book speaks both metaphorically and directly of the conflicts between science and religion and traditional versus modern life. Some have suggested that in Dracula, vampirism is a metaphor for uncontrolled sexual desire, the ungodly lust for blood equated with lust for the flesh.
The Victorian era was a sexual paradox; rigid morality and fear of the body and one's natural biological impulses ruled on the outside, with unwed motherhood a scandal worthy of suicide. But behind closed doors, Victorians rarely practiced what they preached. There was a thriving, seamy sexual underground in England at the time that included both female and male brothels catering to any and all desires. Some of the best literary erotica ever written was penned during the Victorian era and published in underground literary magazines and anthologies, all of which were distributed on the sly - usually under cover of darkness.
Though the suave and seductive Count Dracula's name was taken from that of the infamous Romanian prince Vlad Tepes, aka Vlad Dracul - dracul meaning devil in the Romanian language - the novel was partly inspired by Sheridan Le Fanu's classic 1871 novella Carmilla, which told the story of a lesbian vampire preying on lonely young women. Stoker added new aspects to the vampire mythos; in Dracula, for the first time, a vampire cast no reflection in a mirror, could be driven away with garlic, and could be destroyed by driving a wooden stake through its heart - through Dracula himself meets a different fate.
Though it wasn't the first classic novel to feature a vampire, over a hundred years since its initial publication, Dracula has inspired countless works of vampire fiction. Bela Lugosi's legendary performance as the Count in the first sound film adaptation of Dracula in 1931 set the stage for the vampire on film. But it was Stoker's novel that established the vampire as one of the most popular and intriguing characters in Western culture.
Quote Of The Day
"Patriotism is the virtue of the vicious." - Oscar Wilde
Today's Vanguard Video is Creative Writing Masterclass 1: Ideas & Inspiration, the first in a five-part series of creative writing lectures by Keith Gray. For those of you who don't know, best selling and award winning Scottish writer Keith Gray is one of the hottest young adult novelists in the United Kingdom today. Enjoy!